It is well known that both environmental and genetic factors contribute to adult height variation in general population. However, heritability studies have shown that the variation in height is more affected by genetic factors. Height is a typical polygenic trait which has been studied by traditional linkage analysis and association analysis to identify common DNA sequence variation associated with height, but progress has been slow. More recently, with the development of genotyping and DNA sequencing technologies, tremendous achievements have been made in genetic research of human height. Hundreds of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with human height have been identified and validated with the application of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) methodology, which deepens our understanding of the genetics of human growth and development and also provides theoretic basis and reference for studying other complex human traits. In this review, we summarize recent progress in genetic research of human height and discuss problems and prospects in this research area which may provide some insights into future genetic studies of human height.