Systemic autoimmune diseases are a group of heterogeneous disorders caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Although numerous causal genes have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), these susceptibility genes are correlated to a relatively low disease risk, indicating that environmental factors also play an important role in the pathogenesis of disease. The intestinal microbiome, as the main symbiotic ecosystem between the host and host-associated microorganisms, has been demonstrated to regulate the development of the body’s immune system and is likely related to genetic mutations in systemic autoimmune diseases. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, with high-throughput capacity and accuracy, provides a powerful tool to discover genomic mutations, abnormal transcription and intestinal microbiome identification for autoimmune diseases. In this review, we briefly outlined the applications of NGS in systemic autoimmune diseases. This review may provide a reference for future studies in the pathogenesis of systemic autoimmune diseases.
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