Comparative Transcriptomes and EVO-DEVO Studies Depending on Next Generation Sequencing.

High throughput technology has prompted the progressive omics studies, including genomics and transcriptomics. We have reviewed the improvement of comparative omic studies, which are attributed to the high throughput measurement of next generation sequencing technology. Comparative genomics have been successfully applied to evolution analysis while comparative transcriptomics are adopted in comparison of expression profile from two subjects by differential expression or differential coexpression, which enables their application in evolutionary developmental biology (EVO-DEVO) studies. EVO-DEVO studies focus on the evolutionary pressure affecting the morphogenesis of development and previous works have been conducted to illustrate the most conserved stages during embryonic development. Old measurements of these studies are based on the morphological similarity from macro view and new technology enables the micro detection of similarity in molecular mechanism. Evolutionary model of embryo development, which includes the “funnel-like” model and the “hourglass” model, has been evaluated by combination of these new comparative transcriptomic methods with prior comparative genomic information. Although the technology has promoted the EVO-DEVO studies into a new era, technological and material limitation still exist and further investigations require more subtle study design and procedure.

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