The diagnostics of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNEN) have changed in recent years especially concerning the World Health Organization (WHO) classification, TNM staging and grading. Furthermore, some new prognostic and predictive immunohistochemical markers have been introduced. Most progress, however, has been made in the molecular pathogenesis of these neoplasms. Using next generation sequencing techniques, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, hypoxia and epigenetic changes were identified as key players in tumorigenesis. In this article the most important developments of morphological as well as immunohistochemical diagnostics together with the molecular background of PanNEN are summarized.