Physiological and pathophysiological roles for phospholipase D.

Individual members of the mammalian phospholipase D (PLD) superfamily undertake roles that extend from generating the second messenger signaling lipid, phosphatidic acid, through hydrolysis of the membrane phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine, to functioning as an endonuclease to generate small RNAs and facilitating membrane vesicle trafficking through seemingly nonenzymatic mechanisms. With recent advances in genome-wide association studies, RNA interference screens, next-generation sequencing approaches, and phenotypic analyses of knockout mice, roles for PLD family members are being uncovered in autoimmune, infectious neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular disease, as well as in cancer. Some of these disease settings pose opportunities for small molecule inhibitory therapeutics, which are currently in development.

Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

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