Emerging methodologies for pathogen identification in positive blood culture testing.

Bloodstream infections (BSIs) represent a major cause of death in developed countries and are associated with long-term loss of functions. Blood culture remains the gold standard for BSI diagnosis, as it is easy to perform and displays a good analytical sensitivity. However, its major drawback remains the long turnaround time, which can result in inappropriate therapy, fall of survival rate, emergence of antibiotic resistance and increase of medical costs. Over the last 10 years, molecular tools have been the alternative to blood cultures, allowing early identification of pathogens involved in sepsis, as well detection of critical antibiotic resistance genes. Besides, the advent of MALDI-TOF revolutionized practice in routine microbiology significantly reduced the time to result. Reviewed here are recent improvements in early BSI diagnosis and these authors’ view for the future is presented, including innovative high-throughput technologies.

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