Despite numerous breakthroughs in the understanding of colorectal cancer and identification of many oncogenic mutations, the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer remains relatively more empiric than targeted. Testing for mutations in rat sarcoma virus (RAS) and rapidly growing fibrosarcoma (RAF) are routinely performed, though identification of these mutations currently offers little more than a negative predictive marker for response to EGFR inhibitor treatment and, in the case of RAF mutation, a poor prognostic indicator. Next-generation sequencing has identified both common and rare mutations in colorectal cancer that offer options for more advanced, targeted therapy. With so much research invested in these targets, the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer stands to become much more personalized in the near future. This review describes several of the more promising targets that are currently being investigated in advanced colorectal cancer.