Next generation sequencing and its applications in HPV-associated cancers.

Approximately 18% of all human cancers have a viral etiology, and human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as one of the most prevalent viruses that plays causative role in nearly all cervical cancers and, in addition, in subset of head and neck, anal, penile and vulvar cancers. The recent introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) and other ‘omics’ approaches have resulted in comprehensive knowledge on the pathogenesis of HPV-driven tumors. Specifically, these approaches have provided detailed information on genomic HPV integration sites, disrupted genes and pathways, and common and distinct genetic and epigenetic alterations in different human HPV-associated cancers. This review focuses on HPV integration sites, its concomitantly disrupted genes and pathways and its functional consequences in both cervical and head and neck cancers. Integration of NGS data with other ‘omics’ and clinical data is crucial to better understand the pathophysiology of each individual malignancy and, based on this, to select targets and to design effective personalized treatment options.

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