Gene mutations in bone marrow failure syndromes.

Acquired bone marrow failure syndromes consist of aplastic anemia, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Clonal hematopoiesis is frequently observed in non-neoplastic disorders, aplastic anemia and PNH as well as a neoplastic phenotype, MDS. However, the significance of such clonal hematopoiesis, particularly in aplastic anemia, remains to be elucidated. Recent advancements in next generation sequencing technology have revealed a diverse clonal structure in these bone marrow failure syndromes, as well as in age-related clonal hematopoiesis in healthy people. In this review article, we describe gene mutations in bone marrow failure syndromes, together with those detected in healthy people.

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