Endoscopic/Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration and Ancillary Techniques, Particularly Flow Cytometry, in Diagnosing Deep-Seated Lymphomas.

Evaluation of deep-seated lymphomas by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) can be challenging due to their reduced accessibility. Controversy remains as to whether FNA and ancillary techniques can be used to diagnose deep-seated lymphomas reliably and sufficiently for clinical management. Most published studies are favorable that endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)/endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-FNA plays an important role in the diagnosis of deep-seated lymphomas. The addition of ancillary techniques, particularly flow cytometry, increases diagnostic yield. While subclassification is possible in a reasonable proportion of cases, the reported rates of successful subclassification are lower than those for lymphoma detection/diagnosis. The diagnostic limitation exists for Hodgkin’s lymphoma, grading of follicular lymphoma, and some T-cell lymphomas. The role of FNA in deep-seated lymphomas is much better established for recurrent than primary disease. It remains unclear whether the use of large-sized-needle FNA or a combination of core needle biopsy and FNA improves subclassification. It is important for cytopathologists to have considerable understanding of the WHO lymphoma classification and develop a collaborative working relationship with hematopathologists and oncologists. As EUS/EBUS-FNA techniques advance and sophisticated molecular techniques such as next- generation sequencing become possible, the role of FNA in the diagnosis of deep-seated lymphomas will possibly increase.

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