Survey of (Meta)genomic Approaches for Understanding Microbial Community Dynamics.

Advancement in the next generation sequencing technologies has led to evolution of the field of genomics and metagenomics in a slim duration with nominal cost at precipitous higher rate. While metagenomics and genomics can be separately used to reveal the culture-independent and culture-based microbial evolution, respectively, (meta)genomics together can be used to demonstrate results at population level revealing in-depth complex community interactions for specific ecotypes. The field of metagenomics which started with answering “who is out there?” based on 16S rRNA gene has evolved immensely with the precise organismal reconstruction at species/strain level from the deeply covered metagenome data outweighing the need to isolate bacteria of which 99% are de facto non-cultivable. In this review we have underlined the appeal of metagenomic-derived genomes in providing insights into the evolutionary patterns, growth dynamics, genome/gene-specific sweeps, and durability of environmental pressures. We have demonstrated the use of culture-based genomics and environmental shotgun metagenome data together to elucidate environment specific genome modulations via metagenomic recruitments in terms of gene loss/gain, accessory and core-genome extent. We further illustrated the benefit of (meta)genomics in the understanding of infectious diseases by deducing the relationship between human microbiota and clinical microbiology. This review summarizes the technological advances in the (meta)genomic strategies using the genome and metagenome datasets together to increase the resolution of microbial population studies.

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