RNA structure through multidimensional chemical mapping.
Q Rev Biophys. 2016 01;49:e7
Authors: Tian S, Das R
The discoveries of myriad non-coding RNA molecules, each transiting through multiple flexible states in cells or virions, present major challenges for structure determination. Advances in high-throughput chemical mapping give new routes for characterizing entire transcriptomes in vivo, but the resulting one-dimensional data generally remain too information-poor to allow accurate de novo structure determination. Multidimensional chemical mapping (MCM) methods seek to address this challenge. Mutate-and-map (M2), RNA interaction groups by mutational profiling (RING-MaP and MaP-2D analysis) and multiplexed •OH cleavage analysis (MOHCA) measure how the chemical reactivities of every nucleotide in an RNA molecule change in response to modifications at every other nucleotide. A growing body of in vitro blind tests and compensatory mutation/rescue experiments indicate that MCM methods give consistently accurate secondary structures and global tertiary structures for ribozymes, ribosomal domains and ligand-bound riboswitch aptamers up to 200 nucleotides in length. Importantly, MCM analyses provide detailed information on structurally heterogeneous RNA states, such as ligand-free riboswitches that are functionally important but difficult to resolve with other approaches. The sequencing requirements of currently available MCM protocols scale at least quadratically with RNA length, precluding general application to transcriptomes or viral genomes at present. We propose a modify-cross-link-map (MXM) expansion to overcome this and other current limitations to resolving the in vivo ‘RNA structurome’.
PMID: 27266715 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]