The human intestine hosts various complex microbial communities that are closely associated with multiple health and disease processes. Determining the composition and function of these microbial communities is critical to unveil disease mechanisms and promote human health. Recently, meta-omic strategies have been developed that use high-throughput techniques to provide a wealth of information, thus accelerating the study of gut microbes. Metaproteomics is a newly emerged analytical approach that aims to identify proteins on a large scale in complex environmental microbial communities (e.g., the gut microbiota). This review introduces the recent analytical strategies and applications of metaproteomics, with a focus on advances in gut microbiota research, including a discussion of the limitations and challenges of these approaches.