Enhancing acute myeloid leukemia therapy – monitoring response using residual disease testing as a guide to therapeutic decision-making.
Expert Rev Hematol. 2017 Jun;10(6):563-574
Authors: Tomlinson B, Lazarus HM
INTRODUCTION: Current standards for monitoring the response of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are based on morphologic assessments of the bone marrow and recovery of peripheral blood counts. A growing experience is being developed to enhance the detection of small amounts of AML, or minimal residual disease (MRD). Areas covered: Available techniques include multi-color flow cytometry (MFC) of leukemia associated immunophenotypes (LAIP), quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) for detecting fusion and mutated genes (RUNX1-RUNX1T1, CBFB-MYH11, and NPM1), overexpression of genes such as WT1, and next generation sequencing (NGS) for MRD. Expert commentary: While MRD monitoring is standard of care in some leukemia subsets such as acute promyelocytic leukemia, this approach for the broader AML population does not universally predict outcomes as some patients may experience relapse in the setting of undetectable leukemia while others show no obvious disease progression despite MRD positivity. However, there are instances where MRD can identify patients at increased risk for relapse that may change recommended therapy. Currently, prospective investigations to define clinically relevant MRD thresholds are ongoing. Risk-adapted trials are needed to best define the use of MRD in the follow up of AML patients after initial induction therapy.
PMID: 28475434 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]