The emerging role of circular RNAs in transcriptome regulation.
Genomics. 2017 Jun 24;:
Authors: Huang S, Yang B, Chen BJ, Bliim N, Ueberham U, Arendt T, Janitz M
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a recently discovered form of RNA that has been found to regulate mammalian transcription. CircRNAs are covalently closed, single-stranded transcripts produced from precursor mRNA. While initially circRNAs were considered to be splicing artefacts, next-generation RNA sequencing of non-polyadenylated transcriptomes has recently shown that the expression of circRNAs is widespread and over 20% of expressed genes in examined cells and tissues can produce these transcripts. Until now thousands of circRNAs have been discovered in organisms ranging from Drosophila melanogaster to Homo sapiens. Functional studies indicate that these transcripts regulate expression of protein-coding linear transcripts and thus comprise an important component of gene expression regulation. Here we provide a comprehensive overview on biology of circRNAs, including the expression patterns and function. Moreover, we discuss current methodologies for discovery and validation of circular transcripts. Finally, perspectives for utilization of circRNA as molecular markers of complex diseases are presented.
PMID: 28655641 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]