Intragenic FMR1 disease-causing variants: a significant mutational mechanism leading to Fragile-X syndrome.

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Intragenic FMR1 disease-causing variants: a significant mutational mechanism leading to Fragile-X syndrome.

Eur J Hum Genet. 2017 Apr;25(4):423-431

Authors: Quartier A, Poquet H, Gilbert-Dussardier B, Rossi M, Casteleyn AS, Portes VD, Feger C, Nourisson E, Kuentz P, Redin C, Thevenon J, Mosca-Boidron AL, Callier P, Muller J, Lesca G, Huet F, Geoffroy V, El Chehadeh S, Jung M, Trojak B, Le Gras S, Lehalle D, Jost B, Maury S, Masurel A, Edery P, Thauvin-Robinet C, Gérard B, Mandel JL, Faivre L, Piton A

Abstract
Fragile-X syndrome (FXS) is a frequent genetic form of intellectual disability (ID). The main recurrent mutagenic mechanism causing FXS is the expansion of a CGG repeat sequence in the 5′-UTR of the FMR1 gene, therefore, routinely tested in ID patients. We report here three FMR1 intragenic pathogenic variants not affecting this sequence, identified using high-throughput sequencing (HTS): a previously reported hemizygous deletion encompassing the last exon of FMR1, too small to be detected by array-CGH and inducing decreased expression of a truncated form of FMRP protein, in three brothers with ID (family 1) and two splice variants in boys with sporadic ID: a de novo variant c.990+1G>A (family 2) and a maternally inherited c.420-8A>G variant (family 3). After clinical reevaluation, the five patients presented features consistent with FXS (mean Hagerman’s scores=15). We conducted a systematic review of all rare non-synonymous variants previously reported in FMR1 in ID patients and showed that six of them are convincing pathogenic variants. This study suggests that intragenic FMR1 variants, although much less frequent than CGG expansions, are a significant mutational mechanism leading to FXS and demonstrates the interest of HTS approaches to detect them in ID patients with a negative standard work-up.

PMID: 28176767 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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