[Synthetic genomics: the art of design and synthesis].

Benefited from the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing, genome editing, DNA synthesis and functional genomics, synthetic genomics gains the momentum in this century. The entire genomes of several viruses and one prokaryote have been chemically synthesized and applied to drive normal cellular processes. The first eukaryotic genome synthesis project (Sc2.0) is on-going and about half of the genome has been synthesized and functionally tested. The Human Genome Project-Write (HGP-Write) was proposed in 2016, which pushes the tide of synthetic genomics to a position we have never seen before. Technologies on genome-scale design and DNA synthesis have been rapidly developed, aiming to construct a more predictable and controllable genome at reasonable cost. The generation of synthetic organisms not only has promising applications for industry, environment, healthy and basic researches, but also raises ethic and policy concerns. This review presents the development of synthetic genomics, with emphasis on technologies for whole genome design, synthesis and assembly. We also discussed ethics, prospective and challenge in synthetic genomics. As one of the major branches in synthetic biology, synthetic genomics is still at its infant stage. A lot of excitement will come in the next few years.

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