Comparison of Minimal Residual Disease Detection by Multiparameter Flow Cytometry, ASO-qPCR, Droplet Digital PCR, and Deep Sequencing in Patients with Multiple Myeloma Who Underwent Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation.

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy with a poor prognosis, characterized by clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). Relapse due to undetected minimal residual disease (MRD) is the leading cause of death among patients with MM. This review summarizes the methods and prognostic value of MRD assessment in BM and autografts from MM patients who underwent autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC), allele-specific oligonucleotide real-time quantitative PCR (ASO-qPCR), droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), and next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based detection methods. MRD assessment using NGS-based approaches has clear prognostic value and better sensitivity compared to traditional methods.

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