The introduction of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in mammalian cells is a scientific breakthrough, which has greatly affected basic research and gene therapy. The simplicity and general access to CRISPR/Cas9 reagents has in an unprecedented manner “democratized” gene targeting in biomedical research, enabling genetic engineering of any gene in any cell, tissue, organ, and organism. The ability for fast, precise, and efficient profiling of the double-stranded break induced insertions and deletions (indels), mediated by any of the available programmable nucleases, is paramount to any given gene targeting approach. In this study we review the most commonly used indel detection methods and using a robust, sensitive, and cost efficient Indel Detection by Amplicon Analysis method, we have investigated the impact of the most commonly used CRISPR/Cas9 delivery formats, including lentivirus transduction, plasmid lipofection, and ribo nuclear protein electroporation, on the dynamics of indel profile formation. We observe rapid indel formation using RNP electroporation, especially with synthetic stabilized gRNA, as well as long-term decline in overall indel frequency with lipofectamine-based, plasmid transfection methods. Most methods reach peak editing on day 2-3 postdelivery. Furthermore, we find relative increase in frequency of larger size indels (>6bp) under condition of persistent editing using stably integrated lentiviral gRNA and Cas9 vectors.
Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.