Uncovering Hereditary Tumor Syndromes: Emerging Role of Surgical Pathology.

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Uncovering Hereditary Tumor Syndromes: Emerging Role of Surgical Pathology.

Semin Diagn Pathol. 2018 Jan 29;:

Authors: Agaimy A, Hartmann A

Abstract
With the increased use of modern next generation sequencing technologies in routine molecular pathology practice, the proportion of cancer cases with a definite or probable hereditary background seems to be steadily increasing. Currently, it is assumed that ≥10% of all malignancies develop in the setting of germline predisposition. Diagnosis and recognition of cancer predisposition syndromes relies not rarely on distinctive histopathological features that proved to be highly valuable and reproducible in uncovering those diseases that would otherwise have gone undetected by clinicians as being hereditary in nature. This is especially true in case of new mutations without suspicious family history. Example of such entities are fumarate hydratase-deficient renal cell carcinoma (RCC), succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, hereditary gastrointestinal stromal tumor syndromes and many other diseases. It is remarkable that many of these inherited cancer syndromes do present as unifocal disease with highly variable age of onset so that many of them are misinterpreted as sporadic on clinical grounds. Availability of specialized cancer screening programs and disease-specific follow-up schemes for several hereditary cancer syndromes encourages the recognition of such disorders, so that “at risk patients” can be enrolled in such programs for early detection and timely intervention/ treatment of these malignancies which are in the majority of cases aggressive. In several conditions, as in familial adenomatous polyposis coli (FAP), well established prophylactic surgical interventions may be adopted to prevent the disease manifestations, highlighting the importance of the timely recognition of these potentially life-limiting neoplasms. In this review, the clinicopathological, demographic and histological features that are considered highly suggestive of a hereditary basis of “a neoplasm under consideration” are highlighted and discussed briefly. The details of some of these entities are in addition dealt with in reviews devoted to them in this special issue.

PMID: 29395463 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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