[Cilia ultrastructural and gene variation of primary ciliary dyskinesia: report of three cases and literatures review].

[Cilia ultrastructural and gene variation of primary ciliary dyskinesia: report of three cases and literatures review].

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2018 Feb 02;56(2):134-137

Authors: Wang K, Chen X, Guo CY, Liu FQ, Wang JR, Sun LF

Abstract
Objective: To analyze the clinical manifestations, cilia ultrastructure and gene variations of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Methods: Analysis of three cases diagnosed as PCD by transmission electron microscopy of the endobronchial biopsy material in Division of Pediatric Pulmonology of Shandong Provincial Hospital between 2013 and 2016. Target gene sequence capture and next generation sequencing were used to analyze the gene. Related literatures on gene variation of PCD in Chinese were reviewed from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, Human Gene Mutation Database, PubMed and CNKI up to July 2017 by using search terms of “PCD” , “gene” , “Chinese”. Results: There were one male and two females aged from 10 to 11 years. The common symptoms included recurrent respiratory infection, sinusitis and bronchiectasis. Two of them had situs inversus. Case 1 had lack of outer and inner dynein arms with compound heterozygous mutation of LRRC6. Case 2 had outer and inner dynein arms defects with heterozygous mutations of DNAH5 and DNAH11. Case 3 had abnormality in microtubule and inner dynein arms with homozygous mutation of CCDC39. All the variations mentioned above have not been reported before. Twelve cases have been reported about gene variations in PCD in Chinese from eight reports. All these patients had recurrent respiratory infection starting soon after birth, rhinosinusitis, and bronchiectasis. Nine of them had dextrocardia. Four cases have taken an effective nasal (or bronchial) mucosal biopsy. 1 case had inner and outer dynein arms defects. One case had inner dynein arms and radial spokes defects. One case had microtubule and central pair defects. And 1 case had normal cilia ultrastructure. Eight kinds of gene variations were found. Three cases had gene variations of DNAH5. 2 cases had gene variations of DYX1C1. 2 cases had gene variations of CCNO. There was 1 case with gene variations of CCDC39, CCDC40, HYDIN, ARMC4 and DNAI1 separately. Conclusions: Recurrent respiratory infection starting soon after birth, rhinosinusitis, and bronchiectasis are the common symptoms of PCD. Eleven of fifteen Chinese PCD patients with positive gene mutations were Kartagener syndrome. Cilia ultrastructure showed defects of inner and outer dynein arms, radial spokes, microtubule and central pair. Ten kinds of gene variations were found: DNAH5, DYX1C1, CCNO, CCDC39, CCDC40, HYDIN, ARMC4, DNAI1, LRRC6、DNAH11.

PMID: 29429202 [PubMed – in process]

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