Symposium review: Understanding diet-microbe interactions to enhance productivity of dairy cows.
J Dairy Sci. 2018 May 30;:
Authors: Pitta DW, Indugu N, Baker L, Vecchiarelli B, Attwood G
Ruminants are dependent on the microbiota (bacteria, protozoa, archaea, and fungi) that inhabit the reticulo-rumen for digestion of feedstuffs. Nearly 70% of energy and 50% of protein requirements for dairy cows are met by microbial fermentation in the rumen, emphasizing the need to characterize the role of microbes in feed breakdown and nutrient utilization. Over the past 2 decades, next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed for rapid expansion of knowledge concerning microbial populations and alterations in response to forages, concentrates, supplements, and probiotics in the rumen. Advances in gene sequencing and emerging bioinformatic tools have allowed for increased throughput of data to aid in our understanding of the functional relevance of microbial genomes. In particular, metagenomics can identify specific genes involved in metabolic pathways, and metatranscriptomics can describe the transcriptional activity of microbial genes. These powerful approaches help untangle the complex interactions between microbes and dietary nutrients so that we can more fully understand the physiology of feed digestion in the rumen. Application of genomics-based approaches offers promise in unraveling microbial niches and respective gene repertoires to potentiate fiber and nonfiber carbohydrate digestion, microbial protein synthesis, and healthy biohydrogenation. New information on microbial genomics and interactions with dietary components will more clearly define pathways in the rumen to positively influence milk yield and components.
PMID: 29859694 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]