Cariogenic microbiome and microbiota of the early primary dentition: a contemporary overview.
Oral Dis. 2018 Jul 03;:
Authors: Fakhruddin KS, Ngo HC, Samaranayake LP
Recent advances in the field of molecular microbiology provide an unprecedented opportunity to decipher the vast diversity of the oral microbiome in health and disease. Here, we provide a contemporary overview of the oral microbiome and the microbiota of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) with particular reference to newer analytical techniques. A MEDLINE search revealed a total of 20 metagenomic studies describing cariogenic-microbiomes of ECC, ten of which also detailed the healthy microbiomes. Additionally, seven studies on site-specific-microbiomes, focusing on acidogenic and aciduric-microbiota of deep-dentinal lesions were also reviewed. These studies evaluated plaque and saliva of children aged-1.5 – 11-years, in cohorts of 12 to 485 individuals. These studies reveal a very rich and diverse microbial communities, with hundreds of different phylotypes and microbial-species, including novel species and phyla such as Scardovia wiggsiae, Slackia exigua, Granulicatella elegans, Firmicutes in the plaque biofilms of children with ECC. On the contrary, bacteria such as Streptococcus cristatus, S. gordonii, S. sanguinis, Corynebacterium matruchotii, and Neisseria flavescens, were common in plaque biofilm of non-carious, healthy, tooth surfaces in subjects with caries. The review illustrates the immense complexity and the diversity of the human oral-microbiota of the cariogenic plaque microbiome in ECC, and the daunting prospect of its demystification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 29969843 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]