Brain malformations associated to Aldh7a1 gene mutations: Report of a novel homozygous mutation and literature review.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2018 Jul 03;:
Authors: Toldo I, Bonardi CM, Bettella E, Polli R, Talenti G, Burlina A, Sartori S, Murgia A
BACKGROUND: The ALDH7A1 gene is known to be responsible for autosomal recessive pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (OMIM 266100). The phenotypic spectrum of ALDH7A1 mutations is very heterogeneous ranging from refractory epilepsy and neurodevelopmental delay, to multisystem neonatal disorder.
AIM: The present study aims at describing the phenotype associated with a novel homozygous ALDH7A1 mutation and the spectrum of brain malformations associated with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy.
METHODS: We conducted a literature review on the Internet database Pubmed (up to November 2017) searching for ALDH7A1 mutations associated with brain malformations and brain MRI findings.
RESULTS: We present the case of two siblings, children of related parents. The proband presented neonatal focal seizures not responding to conventional antiepileptic drugs. Electroencephalography showed a suppression burst pattern and several multifocal ictal patterns, responsive to pyridoxine. Brain MRI was normal. Molecular analysis by targeted next-generation sequencing panel for epileptic encephalopathy disclosed a homozygous missense mutation of ALDH7A1. The same mutation was then found in a stored sample of DNA from peripheral blood of an older sister dead 3 years earlier. This girl presented a complex brain malformation diagnosed with a foetal MRI and had neonatal refractory seizures with suppression burst pattern. She died at 6 months of age.
LITERATURE REVIEW: The brain abnormalities most frequently reported in pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy include: agenesia/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, not specific white matter abnormalities, large cisterna magna, ventriculomegaly, haemorrhages, cerebellum hypoplasia/dysplasia, and, more rarely, dysplasia of the brainstem and hydrocephalus.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: ALDH7A1 mutations have been associated to different brain abnormalities, documented by MRI only in few cases. The study cases expand the clinical spectrum of ALDH7A1 associated conditions, suggesting to look for ALDH7A1 mutations not only in classical phenotypes but also in patients with brain malformations, mainly if there is a response to a pyridoxine trial.
PMID: 30005813 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]