Unraveling uncultivable pesticide degraders via stable isotope probing (SIP).
Crit Rev Biotechnol. 2018 Feb 01;:1-24
Authors: Jiang B, Jin N, Xing Y, Su Y, Zhang D
Uncultivable microorganisms account for over 99% of all species on earth, playing essential roles in ecological processes such as carbon/nitrogen cycle and chemical mineralization. Their functions remain unclear in ecosystems and natural habitats, requiring cutting-edge biotechnologies for a deeper understanding. Stable isotope probing (SIP) incorporates isotope-labeled elements, e.g. 13 C, 18 O or 15 N, into the cellular components of active microorganisms, serving as a powerful tool to link phylogenetic identities to their ecological functions in situ. Pesticides raise increasing attention for their persistence in the environment, leading to severe damage and risks to the ecosystem and human health. Cultivation and metagenomics help to identify either cultivable pesticide degraders or potential pesticide metabolisms within microbial communities, from various environmental media including the soil, groundwater, activated sludge, plant rhizosphere, etc. However, the application of SIP in characterizing pesticide degraders is limited, leaving considerable space in understanding the natural pesticide mineralization process. In this review, we try to comprehensively summarize the fundamental principles, successful cases and technical protocols of SIP in unraveling functional-yet-uncultivable pesticide degraders, by raising its shining lights and shadows. Particularly, this study provides deeper insights into various feasible isotope-labeled substrates in SIP studies, including pesticides, pesticide metabolites, and similar compounds. Coupled with other techniques, such as next-generation sequencing, nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), single cell genomics, magnetic-nanoparticle-mediated isolation (MMI) and compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA), SIP will significantly broaden our understanding of pesticide biodegradation process in situ.
PMID: 29385846 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]